[Paper] Recent Advances in Atomic Layer Deposition



Neil P. Dasgupta, Han-Bo-Ram Lee, Stacey F. Bent, Paul S. Weiss



Chem. Mater., 2016, 28 (7), pp 1943–1947




DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b00673



Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful technique for
the fabrication of atomically precise coatings on a variety
of surfaces, with subnanometer precision in both film thickness
and composition. As a result of the self-limiting surface
chemistry intrinsic to the ALD process, one can also
conformally coat ultrahigh aspect ratio surfaces, including
nanoporous solids and three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical
structures. This degree of synthetic control makes it an ideal
platform for performing fundamental investigations of nanoscale
materials, as well as fabrication of complex functional
coatings for a wide range of applications. The development of
ALD has been heavily driven by the semiconductor industry
over the past two decades as a replacement for other thin-film
deposition processes that lack the necessary synthetic control,
leading to its adoption for uses including high-κ gate dielectrics
for transistors, diffusion barriers for metal interconnects, and
high aspect-ratio memory devices. Additionally, recent progress
has extended the application space of ALD into emerging areas,
including energy conversion and storage, catalysis, biomedical
devices, and environmental barriers. Essentially, whenever
surface and/or interfacial phenomena dominate application
properties at the nanoscale, ALD represents one of the most
powerful approaches for both fundamental and applied
research.